The Samanid period was the flourishing season of Iran after the Arab conquest. It was an entirely Persian dynasty, founded in 819 by Saman-Khoda, a Zoroastrian who converted to Islam. The Samanids knew themselves as the descendants of the Sassanids and the Parthians.
The Samanid kings and princes were wise and considerate and meanwhile quite faithful to the Abbasid Caliphs; however, they always tried to keep their independence in governing their own territory. Moreover, most of the ministers in the Samanid court were men of literature and high education.
In the time of Amir Ismail Samani, who conquered the Saffarids in Khorasan in 900 CE, the power of the Samanids was doubled because of his smart policies and justice. He extended the territory of his kingdom as far as Khorasan and Central Asia. The stability of the government caused high social security, hence the opportunity to improve the situation in every aspect. The country changed for better in culture, art, economy, and commerce, politics, science, architecture, agriculture, etc. there is still clear evidence of their astonishing progress in arts and architecture, seen especially in Bokhara, their main Capital.
The successors of Ismail did not follow his policies and therefore could not go on such firmly as he did. In Samanid period, the Turks of Iran found special positions in the court and as a result, the first sparkles of the Turk dynasties were lit. In 999, after 180 years of fruitful and glorious governing, the Samanid dynasty was overthrown by Karakhamids.