Islamic Revolution, the end of the monarchy in Iran
The majority of Iranians were not happy with the Pahlavi dynasty. Mohammad Reza’s total submission to US and his anti-Islamic policies raised the anger and dissatisfaction of the population and gradually the objections led to a civil war, controlled and leaded by the clerical figure Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who was then in exile under the shah’s command. Though far away, Ayatollah Khomeini controlled the situation quite sagaciously and his orders and commands were fulfilled in Iran right away.
After several months of war between people and the army, the shah was forced to leave Iran in January 16, 1979 and within two weeks Khomeini came back to Iran with the warm welcome of millions of Iranians.
Some months later, in a referendum, more than 99% of Iranians approved to the establishment of an Islamic republic and Khomeini was accepted as the head and leader of the country as well as the supreme spiritual and religious leader(Ayatollah).
In the newly established republic, the constitution was revised and all the principles were set according to Islamic codes. So in the new system, the basis of every decision, whether political, economic, etc., must be Islam.
In the late 1980, Iraq attacked Iran and 8 years of war followed. During the war, Iraq was supported by different countries especially by the US that equipped her with weapons. Finally in 1988 the war ended with the interference of the UN.
The first president of the Islamic republic was Bani Sadr who was removed by Ayatollah Khomeini in less than a year. Rajaii was elected president but was killed by terrorists after several months and Hojattoleslam Seyyed Ali Khameneii was elected president. In 1989 Ayatollah Khomeini passed away and Khameneii replaced him as the supreme spiritual leader and the head of the Islamic republic and Hojatoleslam Hashemi Rafsenjani was elected president. He served as the president for two periods of four years (the utmost period of time for presidency in Iran’s constitution) and then, Hojatoleslam Mohammad Khatami was elected president in 1997. He also was the president for 8 years.
In 2005 Mr. Mahmoud Ahmadi Nejad was elected president of Iran whose policies have turned the attention of the world towards the Middle East in general and Iran in particular.
Several years before and after the Islamic revolution different political parties were active in the country, involved in terrors and sabotages. Many political and clerical personalities of Iran were killed by such groups, some of which are still active outside Iran.